Site Name Ancient/Variant Names Coordinates Occupation Foundation of fortification Type of Site Type of Fortification State of Preservation Excavation (E), Survey (S) Excavation report (E), Monograph (M)  
Abū Qubays (Ar.) Qal‘at Abū Qubaysa (Ar.) 35.235378, 36.330906 Byz (999-?); Local rulers (?-c.1133); Ism (c.1133-c.1135); Cru (c.1135-38); Banū Munqidh (1138-70s); Ayy (1170s-c.1272); Mam (c.1272-) 10th century (local rulers) Castle Concentric hilltop castle Extant walls (renovated)      
Ayla (Ar.) see Crusader: Aila 29.530685, 34.999946 Fat (-1116); Cru (1116-?); Fat (?-c.1142); Cru (c.1142-70); Ayy (1170-81); Cru (1181-82); Ayy (1182-1250); Mam (1250-) c.650 (Um) Harbour town (miṣr); prob. ↓ after 1116 in favour of the castle on Pharaoh´s Island (Jazīrat Firā`ūn) Large castrum-type fortification Foundation walls (excavated) (E) Whitcomb 1986-95 (S) Meloy 1990/91; (E) Whitcomb 1989-97 (articles); (E) Whitcomb 1994; (M) Pringle 2005; (E) Rucker/Niemi 2005; (M) Whitcomb 2006; (M) De Meulemeester/Pringle 2008  
Ayla (Ar.), Khān id. 29.52158, 35.002119 Ayy (late 12th century-1250); Mam (1250-) late 12th century (Ayy) Fortified khān Castrum-type castle (Ott) Good (renovated) (E) De Meulemeester/ Pringle/Al-Shqour 2001-08 (E) De Meulemeester/Pringle 2001-07; (M) id. 2006, 2008; (M) Pringle 2005; (E) De Meulemeester/Al-Shqour 2004, 2006; (E) Al-Shqour/De Meulemeester/Herremans 2009  
‘Ajlūn (Ar.) Qal‘at al-Rabaḍ (Ar.) 32.325121, 35.727741 Ayy (1184-1260); Mon (1260); Mam (1260-) 1184 (Ayy) Castle Hilltop castle, modified castrum-type Good (renovated) (E) Ricci 1927-29 (M) Johns 1931; (M) Müller-Wiener 1966, 58-59; (M) Bowen 1981; (M) al-Qudah 1993; (M) Korn II 2004, 96-98; (M) Yovitchitch 2008  
Amacha (Fr.) Malacha (Fr.) unidentified; prob. Tall Aḥmar SW of Suruç Art (bef. 1098-?) Unknown Castle Hilltop castle        
`Ammān (Ar.) see Crusader: Ahamant 31.954441, 35.934883 Cru (1118/28-bef. 1170↓); Ayy (1188-1260); Mam (1260-) Rom Former castle Tower (south tower of upper citadel), prob. Ayy Ground walls (E, S) Northedge 1979, 1981 (E) Northedge 1983  
al-Azraq (Ar.)   31.880260, 36.827400 Ayy (1237-) Rom Castle, border post Castrum Extant walls (renovated)